Some Literature relating to David Mitrany, Functionalism, and European Integration

Gerhard Michael Ambrosi
UNIVERSITY OF TRIER
ambrosi@uni-trier.de

Introduction

The following is a preliminary annotated bibliography of publications which, for a variety of reasons, might be of interest under the above title.

A much more extensive bibliography relating to functionalism may be found in Groom and Taylor, eds., 1975 [44,pp.284-338]. It is without annotations. Since it is more than 25 years old it obviously is only of limited interest for the current debate about the role of Mitrany-type functionalism. But as a complement to the present list it is quite valuable. It stresses Eastern European and third world contributions and therefore might be particularly interesting for historical studies, in particular about what happened in the context of the Council of Mutual Economic Assistance ("COMECON'').

A further list of publications which is of particular interest in the present context is the bibliography of David Mitrany's original work [103,pp.269-284]. If one regards Mitrany's contributions in toto, it is remarkable that again and again he returned to Romanian questions. His first publication is about history and politics in Romania (1915). There is an analysis of the new Romanian constitution (1924) after WW I, several analyses about agrarian conditions and agrarian reform in Romania (1928, 1930, 1933, 1942). His study about `Marx v. the Peasant' (1927) appeared 1930 in Romanian language.1 Thus there is some indication that although he left Romania at about 20 years of age, Mitrany's mind worked with Romanian problems and situations being prevalent during a considerable part of his later scholarly life.

For some researchers, it might be an interesting speculation to find out whether one can detect or reconstruct specifically Romanian roots in Mitrany's thinking - not only with regard to agrarian problems but also with regard to other aspects of his work, in particular, of course, with regard to his `functionalism'. Mitrany presents this concept in juxtaposition to conceptions of `federalism'. At the time of Mitrany's youth the magnum opus in this field was Popovici's grand design to break up old Austria-Hungary along federalist lines [124] under the perspective of ethnic Romanian interests. One can see in this piece an interesting anti-thesis, or rather: in Mitrany's functionalism one could maybe detect a critical reaction to the grand design of Popovici. It might appear to be rather anachronistic and academic to elaborate this point under present political conditions. Nevertheless, reconsidering Mitrany's critical reception of Popovici could be rather illuminating about the potentials and problems faced by Romania in a historical and geo-political context. It is maybe not a purely academic question whether the situation in Europe after 1989 has become a bit more like the one before World War I than it was during much of the last century. There is at least one scholarly voice which would give an affirmative answer to this question.2

Mitrany himself downplayed the Romanian influence on his theorising - at least he did so in the context of his ideas about `expert government' and his nexus with politics in Romania.3 But his statements to this effect must be taken cum grano salis. In fact, there is evidence that Mitrany tried his hand at scheming in Romanian politics as late as the middle 1920s. Keynes's biographer Robert Skidelsky relates (unfortunately without indicating the source of his knowledge) that Mitrany tried to see Keynes become economics minister of Romania (!) - an offer which Keynes declined.4

In short: not only Mitrany's concept of functionalism is a complex and multifaceted topic. David Mitrany as author, intellectual and visionary is a complex topic himself. Both topics merit further research for a better knowledge of the mental background of recent European history and for a better assessment of the political perspectives offered by European integration.

References

[1]
Gerhard Michael Ambrosi. David Mitranys Funktionalismus als analytische Grundlage wirtschaftlicher und politischer Neuordnungen in Europa [David Mitrany's Functionalism as analytical basis for economic and political re-structurations in Europe]. In Harald Hagemann, editor, Zur deutschsprachigen wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Emigration nach 1933, pages 549-575. Marburg, 1997. republished in: Romanian Journal of International Affairs (Romanian Institute of International Studies) 1998, IV (3-4), pp.311-336   Available under the URL http://www.uni-trier.de/ambrosi/publik/mitranysfunktionalismus.html in August 2003.
Reviews Mitrany's functionalism and discerns it from neofunctionalist conceptions. Discusses the relative importance of Mitrany's approach in relation to federalistic conceptions as exemplified by Altiero Spinelli, the general secretary of the federalist movement and one of the forefathers of the European Union (Agence Europe: "Project Spinelli'').
[2]
Norman Angell. Europe's Optical Illusion. Simpkin Marshall, London, 1909.
Considered to be a precursor of functionalism. See, e.g., [5], [57], [148].

[3]
Louis Armand and Michel Drancourt. Le Pari Européen [The European Response]. Fayard, Paris, 1968. quoted after the German translation Die europäische Antwort, Kiepenheuer & Witsch, Köln Berlin, 1969.
This reference was suggested by Pentland [118] passim. These authors see "planetization'' ahead - what we now subsume as "globalization''. They argue to prepare for it by establishing a common European ground. They coin the concept of "federalism à la carte'' and hope that with this concept the narrow frame of EEC-membership - six members at that time - could be broken. They advocate special agencies for special European issues like: data processing, space travel, transport, etc.; thus, they are quite near to functionalist thinking. They analise why EURATOM did not work as intended.
Care should be taken to discern this particular conception of "federalism à la carte'' from conventional European Federalists' conceptions.
This book is to some extent a sequel to J.J. Servant-Schreiber Le Défi Américain, Paris, 1967.5

[4]
K. Armstrong and S. Bulmer. The Governance of the Single European Market. Manchester University Press, Manchester, 1998.
Mentioned by Cram [25] as example of recent revival in (neo-) functionalistic approach in the tradition of David Mitrany.

[5]
Lucian M. Ashworth. Creating international studies : Angell, Mitrany and the liberal tradition. Ashgate, Aldershot, 1999.

[6]
Maurizio Bach. Vom Zweckverband zum technokratischen Regime: Politische Legitimation und institutionelle Verselbständigung in der Europäischen Gemeinschaft [From special purpose associations to technocratic regime: political legitimization and institutional independence in the European Community]. In Heinrich August Winkler and Hartmut Kaelble, editors, Nationalismus - Nationalitäten - Supranationalität, pages 288-308. Stuttgart, 1993.
Referred to by Giering [40], the title of which also contains the term "Zweckverband'', meaning "special purpose association''. This term may be taken to connote functional associations. In this context, [40,p.52] Giering draws attention in particular to the author's discussion on pp.295 ff.
[7]
Beatrix Brusig. Die Regionalpolitik der Europäischen Gemeinschaft unter besonderer Berücksichtigung integrationstheoretischer Überlegungen [The regional policy of the European Community with special regard to integration theoretic considerations]. Lang, Frankfurt, 1991. zugl. Diss. Hamburg 1990.
Discusses Mitrany-functionalism (p.30-34) and neo-funktionalism. p.157ff: Die Entwicklung der europäischen Regionalpolitik [The development of European regional policy]

[8]
Alastair Buchan, editor. Europe's Future, Europe's Choices. Chatto and Windus for the Institute of Strategic Studies, London, 1969.
From Kinnas [68], p.80 who quotes his p.162 extensively where Buchan advocates a "sterngthened form of functional cooperation'' along the "Community method'' for further European integration. But he warns against political unification.

[9]
Anne-Marie Burley and Walter Mattli. Europe before the court: a political theory of legal integration. International Organization, 47(1):41-76, 1993.
Has a neofunctionalistic approach.

[10]
Klaus Busch. Spill-over-Dynamik und Spill-back-Potential in der europäischen Währungsintegration - ein Beitrag zur Integrationstheorie [Spill-over-dynamics and spill-back-potential in the European Monetary Integration - a contribution to integration theory]. In Markus Jachtenfuchs and Beate Kohler-Koch, editors, Europäische Integration [European Integration], pages 281-311. Leske + Budrich, Opladen, 1996.
Author starts out by noting that there is still no `relevant' alternative to the functionalist model of analysing European integration. Complains about its pejorative treatment in the past. Nevertheless, he criticises "Haas-Schmitter-Nye-Model'' for its limitations. Believes to be able to do away with those. Uses the concept of "integration thresholds''.
In the conclusion the author (wrongly) believes that such thresholds will break tendencies for Economic and Monetary Union "for a very long time''.
Ends with quoting Karl W. Deutsch favourably on problems of sovereignty.
[11]
James A. Caporasco and John T.S. Keeler. The European Union and Regional Integration Theory. In Carolyn Rhodes and Sonia Mazey, editors, The State of the European Union. Building a European Polity, pages 31-62. Lynne Rienner, Boulder, Col., 1995.

[12]
James A. Caporaso. Theory and method in the study of international integration. International Organization, 25,:228: 253., 1971.

[13]
James A. Caporaso. Functionalism and regional integration; a logical and empirical assessment. Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, 1972.

[14]
James A. Caporaso. The Structure and Function of European Integration. Goodyear, Pacific Palisades, 1974.
Working hypothesis of the book (p.21): "the contemporary process of integration in the EEC can usefully be conceived in functional terms.'' On this basis, the author tries to analyse European integration in empirical terms with the help of time series and correlation analysis.

[15]
James A. Caporaso. Regional integration theory: understanding our past and anticipating our future. Journal of European Public Policy, 5,:1-16, 1998.

[16]
James A. Caporaso. The European Union: dilemmas of regional integration. Westview Press, Boulder, 2000.

[17]
James A. Caporaso and A. L. Pelowski. Economic and political integration in Europe: a time series quasi-experimental analysis. American Political Science Review, 65,:418-433, 1971.

[18]
Edward Hallett Carr. Conditions of Peace. 1942. Quoted from the German translation by Elisabeth Rotten: [Grundlagen eines dauernden Friedens], Steinberg: Zürch, 1943.
See Wilson, [163] for an assessment of Carr. The literature sees Carr as a propagator of anti-functionalistic "realism''. In fact, he held views which were very close to those of Mitrany - and, one may add, to Keynes - in stressing economic factors for the world after WW II. Wilson elaborates: "... there is a large element of functionalism in Carr's work. It is not widely known, but Carr was much influenced by the father of international functionalism, David Mitrany, with whom he worked on the Chatham House study group on nationalism which convened during the final stages of the War. One of the interesting things about this is that Mitrany is someone who is conventionally seen as an idealist, though Carr certainly did not see him as such. Carr asserted, for example, in his much overlooked Conditions of Peace published in 1942, that the most `fundamental of problems of the world to-day express themselves in economic terms, and that a political settlement will have little chance of lasting unless it emerges as the crown and coping-stone of successful economic reconstruction'. Such reconstruction would be slow and gradual and guided `by practical needs rather than by preconceived theories'. He contended that the 'urgent need is to alter not the location of frontiers [as happened at Versailles in 1919, GMA], but their meaning'. He urged, in connection with this, that 'men must be induced to determine themselves into different units for different purposes' (and that the national unit had become 'visibly too small' for the control of military and economic policy). He talks of `practical international cooperation' - involving `far-reaching schemes of international public works' - as a `psychological substitute for war'. He talks of `new loyalties' being forged in the performance of `common tasks' and the fulfilment of `newly felt needs'. Allied to this, he talks of the formal shape of the post-war order being determined `not theoretically according to some a priori conception of league, alliance or federation, but empirically as the outcome and expression of a practical working arrangement'. As to the nature and shape of these `practical working arrangements', he advocated, among other things, a European Relief Commission, a European Transport Corporation, a European Reconstruction and Public Works Corporation, a European Central Bank (!) and, most ambitiously of all, a European Planning Authority (`the master-key', he claimed, `to the problem of postwar settlement'). All of these bodies, he further declared, would form part of what he called, with purposeful frugality, the `European Unit', and their `constitutional form would vary according to function'.''
Most of these ideas can be found in the final (10th) chapter on The New Europe.
Carr never quotes Mitrany, however, but repeadely he refers to J.M. Keynes (19196 and 1936!). He realizes that Keynes' (1919) main theme was the fatal disregard of economic aspects of the Versailles peace treaty resp. of the economic conditions of Europe after it.

[19]
Davnet Cassidy. A Critique of European Integration Using Mitrany's Functionalist Approach. University of Limerick Political & Economic Review, 1, 1996.
quoted from the URL http://www.ul.ie/~govsoc/ulper/1996/ARTICLES/Dav.htm on 5 July 2002. The article conveys some of Mitrany's basic ideas.

[20]
Centre Europeen de la Culture, editor. Méthodes et Mouvements pour unir l'Europe. Bulletin. Centre Europeen de la Culture, Geneva, May 1958.
This Centre was one of the important focusses of debate about European integration. Harrison, [53,p.72 n.22] mentions this particular issue for Spinelli's contribution concerning "La méthode constitutionelle''.

[21]
Dimitris N. Chryssochoou. Towards a Civic Conception of the European Polity. Working Paper 33 / 01 in ESRC-project: " One Europe or Several''? Sussex European Institute University of Sussex, Arts A Building, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9SH, 2001. electronically available under URL http://www.one-europe.ac.uk/pdf/w33chryssochoou.pdf on 22 July 2002.
p.3: basic thesis of the paper: "... we are currently witnessing the reversal of the Mitranian logic to integration: instead of `form follows function' (Mitrany, 1943:236), it is increasingly the case that the structural properties of the larger system - ie, the absence of a European constitution, the inchoateness of a European demos, the consensus-seeking practices in the Council of Ministers, the lack of a genuine European social legitimacy, and so on - dictate the depth and range of the regional arrangements. This exemplifies the limits of integration... ''

[22]
Dorette Corbey. Dialectical functionalism: stagnation as a booster of European integration. International Organization, 49,:253-284, 1995.

[23]
Carol Ann Cosgrove and Kenneth J. Twitchett, editors. The New International Actors. The United Nations and the European Economic Community. Macmillan, St. Martin´s Press, London, 1970.

[24]
Michael Cox, editor. E. H. Carr: A Critical Appraisal. Palgrave, London, 2000.

[25]
Laura Cram. Imagining the Union: A Case of Banal Europeanism? In H. Wallace, editor, Whose Europe? Interlocking Dimensions of Integration, chapter 11, pages 343-362. Macmillan, London, 2001.
p.343: " ... a focus on the learning of `integrative habits' as a result of prior cooperation, emphasized by the functionalists (Mitrany, 1943), the communication school (Deutsch, 1953, 1957, 1966) and neo-functionalist scholars (Haas, 1958), has once again begun to come to the fore.''
[26]
Laura Cram. Integration theory and the study of the European policy process - Towards a synthesis of approaches. In Richardson [128], pages 51-73.
Covers Mitrany-type functionalism (p.53-55) as well as the later neo-functionalism (p.55-60). Stresses that there is a growing literature which sees the "EU as a system of governance'' (p.65, author's emphasis). Concludes by pleading to bring the societal dimension back into the focus of integration theory.
[27]
Kenneth A. Dahlberg. Regional integration: the neo-functional versus a configurative approach. International Organization, 24,:122- 128, 1970.

[28]
Sidney Dell. Economic integration and the american example. The Economic Journal, (March), 1959.
Quoted by Mitrany 1965 as witness that regional integration is not very effective for solving economic problems like inequality of incomes or size of product markets.

[29]
Daniel Dombey, Michael Mann, and Francesco Guerra. The power that sits over Europe - Despite talk of reform, the EU's committees wield more and more influence. Financial Times, (34,920):7, August 22 2002.
The subtitle states the main argument of the article.

[30]
John Eastby. Functionalism and Interdependence, volume 3 of The Credibility of Institutions, Policies and Leadership, edited by Kenneth W. Thompson. University Press of America, Lanham ; New York; London, 1985.
Survey about Functionalism which focusses repeatedly on Mitrany himself. Kenneth W. Thompson, foreword: "No one has discussed the theory and practice of functionalism with greater analytical rigor than Eastby.''

[31]
EIPA, editor. Governance by Committee: The Role of Committees in European Policy Making and Policy, volume 00/GHA of Research Paper. European Institute of Public Administration, Maastricht, 2000. URL: http.//eipa-nl.com/public/public_publications/default_working.htm.
"State of the Art Report'' about various aspects of the subject matter stated in the title.

[32]
Kjell A. Eliassen and Catherine Børve Monsen. Comparison of European and Southeast Asian Integration. In Teló [155], pages 111-133.
Authors attempt economic explanation of success of EU-integration. Neofunctionalism expressly discussed on p.122.
[33]
Jürgen Ensthaler. Auf dem Weg vom Binnenmarkt zur Europäischen Union [On the Road from the Internal Market to the European Union]. [34], pages 9-32.
Stresses the character of the EU as a "special purpose association'' which is seen to persist in spite of all the ambitions to form a "union''. In the final passages he refers to [60] and [61], Ipsen being an author who received functionalism in the context of legal interpretation of European integration.
p.31: "Für das, was in Europa bislang [1994, GMA] passiert ist und das, was in nächster Zeit zu erwarten ist, ist der Begriff Europäischer Zweckverband [im Sinne von Ipsen, EuR S.1(7), nr.[61] ] wohl der treffende; in Europa geschieht jedenfalls im Moment wenig, was den Unionsbegriff, der einen gehörigen Schuß Staatlichkeit in sich trägt, ausfüllen könnte.''
[34]
Jürgen Ensthaler, editor. Vom Binnenmarkt zur Europäischen Union. Die Gemeinschaft zwischen Zweckverband und neuer Staatlichkeit. Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin, 1995.
Collection of papers delivered 1994 at the University of Kaiserslautern at the "26th Industry Contact Seminar''. The title of this book is somewhat a misnomer. Contributions to this volume have little to say about "Zweckverband'' - special purpose association. Contribution of Ensthaler himself (see nr. [33]) does refer briefly to this concept by referring to Ipsen. Ipsen is the author who, arguing from the legal position, repeatedly stressed this aspect of European integration under express reference to functionalism.

[35]
European Parliament, editor. Comitology, volume No. 21 of Intergovernmental Conference - Briefings. 1997. (First update: 17th March 1997).
Good overview over "Comitology''. Available at URL http://www.europarl.eu.int/igc1996/fiches/fiche21_en.htm on 20 August 2002
For further details on committees see the research project as discribed in [31] and in particular in [72].

[36]
Niall Ferguson. The Pity of War. Explaining World War I. Allen Lane, The Penguin Press, 1998. quoted from: Basic Books, New York 1999.
Reference is included because in the last parts of this book the author argues implicitly that the current European situation is in some sense comparable to the one before World War I, at least as far as the relative strength of Great Britain and Germany is concerned. His own conclusion is that as far as Great Britain was concerned, WW I was an (avoidable) waste of effort which took ressources which subsequently were lost for Great Britain in its contest with Germany.
In the present context, this much debated recent book is interesting for two reasons:
1. It shows the continuing relevance of "balance of power'' arguments which were meant to stabilize international politics after the Vienna Congress but in fact had rather de-stabilising consequences.
2. If we are back to pre-WW I conditions with regard to Britain, what about Central Europe? Maybe some of the pre-WW I debates might be of new relevance, if Ferguson were taken seriously. This could give new relevance to some considerations to be found in Popovici [124], the exact nature of such relevance requiring, of course, very careful scrutiny.

[37]
Michel Fortman, S. Neil MacFarlane, and Stéphane Roussel, editors. Tous pour un ou chacun pour soi. Promesses et limites de la coopération régionale en matière de sécurité. Québec, 1996.

[38]
Jürgen Martin Gabriel. Funktionalismus - ein Überblick [Functionalism - a survey], volume 8 of Beiträge. Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule - Forschungsstelle für Internationale Beziehungen, ETH-Zentrum SEI E3, Seilergraben 49, CH-8092 Zürich, December 1996.
In his conclusion, the author stresses that functionalism is a combination of empirical and normative elements. This has often been overlooked. Ernst Haas' neo-functionalis analyses of European integration in the 1950s belonged to a time when behaviouralism was prevalent and that went with an overemphasis on empirical aspects. Later authors, even when favourable to the functionalist view, also put too little stress on normative aspects. Author wants to have shown convincingly that the world view of Haas, Mitrany and Jean Monnet was "left liberal'' - not in a party political sense but in a world visionary sense. Author is convinced (p.25, n.76) that Mitrany had a clear inclination towards Corporatism and therefore liked the ILO.

[39]
Stephen George. Politics and Policy in the European Community. Clarendon, Oxford, 1985.

[40]
Claus Giering. Europa zwischen Zweckverband und Superstaat [Europe between Special Purpose Association and Superstate], volume 1 of Münchener Beiträge zur Europäischen Einigung. Europa Union Verlag, Bonn, 1997. Diss. Univ. München, 1997.
The term Special Purpose Association connotes a juristic reception of the functional idea of European integration as exemplified in particular by Ipsen 1972. This scholarly dissertation reviews several approaches to the analysis of European integration.

[41]
Otto Gierke. Das deutsche Genossenschaftsrecht. [The German Law of Cooperatives] Vol. I: Rechtsgeschichte der deutschen Genossenschaft [Legal History of the German Cooperative]. Weidmannsche Buchhandlung, Berlin, 1868. quoted from the reprint: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft: Darmstadt, 1954.
This is a "classic'' of the literature on cooperatives. They are interesting in a functionalistic context because in a narrowly economic sense they can be seen to cover specific economic functions. The fact that the historical cooperatives can not be limited conceptually to just economic functions might have important implications for the functionalistic conception itself.

[42]
Arthur J. R. Groom. Neofunctionalism: A Case of Mistaken Identity. Political Science, 30 (1):15-28, 1978.

[43]
Arthur J. R. Groom. Approaches to Conflict and Cooperation in International Relations: Lessons from Theory for Practice. Langenhard, 1992. Series of lectures for an Indian audience. URL: http://www.ukc.uk/politics/publications/journals/kentpapers/groom1.html on 15 July 2002.
Elementary overview about the field by an author much engaged in Mitrany-oriented publications. Author develops the historical background of 1) "realism'', 2) "pluralist'', 3) "structuralist'' approaches to International Relations theory. Describes the revival of interest in Mitrany.

[44]
Arthur J. R. Groom and Paul Taylor, editors. Functionalism. Theory and Practice in International Relations. University of London Press, London, 1975.
Collection of very readable articles on Functionalism. Among them two by Mitrany himself. In a reprint of [101] he criticises the EEC for its territorially based concept of integration. In [104], Mitrany elaborates his vision of what now may be called "governance'' in a trans-national setting.

[45]
Arthur J. R. Groom and Paul Taylor, editors. Frameworks for International Co-operation. Pinter Publishers, London, 1990.
A broad and thorough selection of discussions of the topic with a strong - but not un-critical - slant on functionalism and neo-functionalism.
Contains [54], [151], [152]

[46]
Ernst B. Haas. The Uniting of Europe: Political, Economic and Social Forces, 1950 - 1957. Stevens & Sons and Stanford University Press, London / Stanford, 1958. 2nd ed. 1968.
A "classic'' of neo-functionalist literature. Coined the concept of "spill-over''. But see the criticism by Laura Cram [25]: ''Haas' focus on shifting loyalties is often misconstrued. For Haas (1958: 15-16), it was more likely to be the convergence of a very disparate set of interests which would drive the process of integration and result in the establishment of a new political community, than any mass conversion to the doctrine of `Europeanism'. Ultimately, a self-interested shift in loyalty, or in the focus of political activities, by the political elite would, he argued, increase the dynamic towards the development of the new political community, whether it resulted from positive or from negative long-term expectations of the integration process (Haas, 1958: 297).''

[47]
Ernst B. Haas. International Integration: The European and the Universal Process. International Organization, 15:366-92, 1961.

[48]
Ernst B. Haas. Beyond the Nation State. Functionalism and International Organizations. Stanford University Press, Stanford, 1964.

[49]
E[rnst] B. Haas. `The Study of regional Integration: reflections on the Joys and Agonies of Pre-theorising. International Organisation, 24 (4):607-646, 1970.

[50]
Peter Haas. Introduction: epistemic communities and international policy coordination. International Organization, 46:1-35, 1992.
Niemann, nr. [111] below, relates this author's "epistemic communities '' to neofunctionalism. The concept extends the analytical focus from civil servants and interest groups to communities of experts who can shape a community's vision and its sense of urgency for action. This concept may be subsumed under the heading of "cultivated spillover''.

[51]
Stephan Haggard and Andrew Moravcsik. The political economy of financial assistance to Eastern Europe, 1989-1991. In R. Keohane and S. Hoffmann, editors, After the Cold War, pages 246-85. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA., 1993.
Arne Niemann argues strongly against this contribution on a neo-functionalist basis.
[52]
Charles Grove Haines, editor. Europäische Integration. Göttingen, 1958. ( European Integration, deutsch).

[53]
Reginald James Harrison. Europe in Question: theories of regional international integration. Allen & Unwin, London, 1974.
Taylor [149,xi, note] considers this to be an excellent survey.

[54]
Reginald James Harrison. Neo-Functionalism. In Groom and Taylor [45], pages 139-150.
Stresses that the European Community is the object of neo-functionalism.
[55]
Andreas Hasenclever. Europa und der demokratische Frieden [Europe and the Democratic Peace], volume 38 of Tübinger Arbeitspapiere zur Internationalen Politik und Friedensforschung. Institut für Politikwissenschaft, Universität Tübingen, 2001.
Author criticises the lack of interest which the academic community displays with regard to institutional foundations of peaceful conditions in Europe. Refers several times to "functionalists around David Mitrany''.
Available under the URL
http://www.uni-tuebingen.de/pol/taps/tap38.htm on 5 July 2002.

[56]
Simon Hix. The Political System of the European Union. Palgrave, Houndmills, Basingstoke and New York, 1999.
p.14: "The first and most enduring grand theory of European integration is neo-functionalism (see for example Haas, 1958, 1961; Lindberg, 1963, Lindberg and Scheigold, 1970, 1971)''

[57]
Michael Hodges. Functionalism and multinational companies. In Groom and Taylor [44], pages 225-237.
p.226: "One of the precursors of functionalism, Norman Angell, noted in 1909 already, that both capital and labour were becoming increasingly internationalised, and foresaw an insipient tension between the state system and the development of an international economy''.
Investigates `the multinational company as a functional organisation' and `multinational companies and international integration'.
[58]
Stanley Hoffmann. Obstinate or obsolete? The fate of the nation state and the case of Western Europe. Daedalus, 95, 1966.
Criticises neo-functionalist approach on the grounds that it was allegedly unable to explain stagnation of European integration after Luxembourg Compromise of 1966 (which permitted to force unanimity voting in European Council by declaring special national interest in the issue to be voted upon).

[59]
Hans-Peter Ipsen. Europäisches Gemeinschaftsrecht [European Community Law]. J.C.B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck), Tübingen, 1972.
Ipsen is one of the most pronounced propagators of the view that the European Communities are "special purpose associations''. In fn.46, p.199 he expressly scolds German Sociology and Politology not to have received the American "Functionalism''. Mentions Haas, Lindberg, Zellentin and others.

[60]
Hans Peter Ipsen. Europäische Verfassung - Nationale Verfassung. Europarecht, 29:195-213, 1987.
Author insists on his functionalistic view of European Communities as "special purpose associations''. Pours derision on Art.8 of the (then) planned EU-Treaty for decreeing EU-citizenship because such a legalistic or constitutionalistic approach does not heed realities which are not in accord with such a proclamation.

[61]
Hans Peter Ipsen. Zehn Glossen zum Maastricht-Urteil. Europarecht, 29:1-21, 1994.
pp.7-9: Author refers to his earlier interpretation of the European Communities as "special purpose associations''. Sees this view confirmed by the German Federal Constitutional Court's decision of 12 Oct 1993 concerning the Maastricht Treaty. Criticises the Court for using the term "Staatenverbund'' (combination of states) for the EU because it suggests a technical welding together which he considers as juristically unhelpful.

[62]
Markus Jachtenfuchs. Ideen und Integration. Verfassungsideen in Deutschland, Frankreich und Großbritannien und die Entwicklung der EU [Ideas and Integration. Constitutional Ideas in Germany, France, and Great Britain and the development of the EU]. www.iu-bremen.de/imperia/md/content/test/3.pdf on 22 July 2002, 1999. Habilitationsschrift, vorgelegt an der Fakultät für Sozialwissenschaften, Universität Mannheim, Juni 1999 [Professorial Dissertation].
The author ctiticizes old functionalism for its lack of political science and neo-functionalism for its very narrow conception of politics, too much oriented towards US- American "pluralism'' :
pp.64-65: "Institutionenpolitik im Sinne bewußt gestaltender, unterschiedliche Optionen politischer Organisation abwägender Politik hat in diesem Rahmen [neofunctionalistisch à la Haas (1968), GMA] keinen Sinn. Zwar verzichtet die neofunktionalistische Theorie nicht wie die alte funktionalistische Theorie der internationalen Politik (Mitrany 1943) vollständig auf eine Theorie der Politik, aber diese bleibt eine Theorie der Anpassung an gesellschaftliche Zwänge. Ideen werden nur als irrationale nationalistische Ideologie konzeptualisiert, die von dramatisch-politischen Akteuren (gemeint war de Gaulle) mobilisiert werden.
See also p.86: "Die Rolle des Staates blieb dabei [referring to neofunctionalism, GMA] seltsam unterbelichtet. Dies wirkt um so befremdlicher, als der Neofunktionalismus ja gerade angetreten war, um dem alten Funktionalismus Mitranys eine Theorie der Politik an die Seite zu stellen. Der Grund hierfür ist wohl, daß der Neofunktionalismus von einer Vorstellung des innenpolitischen Prozesses ausging, die sehr stark der amerikanischen Pluralismustheorie verpflichtet war.''

[63]
Markus Jachtenfuchs. Verfassung, Parlamentarismus, Deliberation. Legitimation und politischer Konflikt in der Europäischen Union. In Christine Landfried, editor, Politik und Politikwissenschaft in einer entgrenzten Welt. Christine Landfried, 2002. Quoted from internet-resource, visited on 22 July 2002 at http://www.iu-bremen.de/imperia/md/content/test/12.pdf.
Although critical of Functionalism (old and new), author does see important insights along this line. Talks about " inclusion'' of individuals through new rights obtained through the EU (p.12: "Inklusionswirkung durch individuelle Rechte, die oft genug der eigene Staat nicht gewährt.'')
Author describes this process as follows: ibid. :"DerWirkungsmechanismus in diesem Bereich ist die Maximierung von individuellem Nutzen: Umweltgruppen entdecken, daß ihnen das Europarecht Mitwirkungsmöglichkeiten gibt, die ihnen das Planungsrecht eines Mitgliedstaates bisher verweigert, Frauen nutzen die Dienstleistungsfreiheit zur Liberalisierung der irischen Abtreibungspraxis oder zur Durchsetzung ihres Wunsches nach Waffendienst in der Armee. Diesen Mechanismus der Schaffung einer breiten und quer zu den üblichen Konfliktlinien liegenden Zahl von Befürwortern aus Eigeninteresse hatten schon die Neofunktionalisten entdeckt. Er ist bis heute wirksam. Problematisch dagegen ist und bleibt die affektive Unterstützung bzw. die grundsätzliche Übereinstimmung mit den Zielen und Werten des Systems - in erster Linie deshalb, weil noch gar nicht klar ist, worin diese eigentlich bestehen.''
[64]
Markus Jachtenfuchs and Beate Kohler-Koch. The Transformation of Governance in the European Union. In Markus Jachtenfuchs and Beate Kohler-Koch, editors, Europäische Integration, pages 15-44. 1995. The text referred to in this entry is a transalation of the source stated here. It was obtainable on 22 Jul 2002 under the URL http://www.iu-bremen.de/imperia/md/content/test/5.pdf.
From the author's abstract: "We analyze European integration as a process leading to a political order encompassing and transforming its member states, thus putting it into the context of a general discussion on responsive and responsible governance. Drawing from a wide range of theoretical and empirical literature from international as well as domestic approaches, we reconsider present integration theories in this light.'' In this context, they offer some disasociated views at neo-functionalism and refer to some of old and some more recent discussion of neo-functionalism.
[65]
Charles Jones. E. H. Carr and International Relations: A Duty to Lie. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1998.
Entry is here in view of Wilson's [163] point that Carr was personally and intellectually quite near to Mitrany.

[66]
Peter Katzenstein. Regionalism in Comparative Perspective. working paper 1/96. ARENA, Oslo, 1996. available under the URL http://www.arena.uio.no/publications/wp96_1.htm on 22 July 2002.

[67]
Young Whan Kihl. A Working Peace System and KEDO Experiment: Problems and Prospects. In P. Cotta-Ramusino and M. Martinelli, editors, Promoting International Scientific, Technological and Economic Cooperation in the Korean Peninsula : Enhancing Stability and International Dialogue, pages 135-141, Rome, Italy, June 2000. Istituto Diplomatico Mariao Toscano - Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. This contribution was available on 14 July 2002 under the URL http://lxmi.mi.infn.it/~landnet/corea/proc.
Author (Department of Political Science, Iowa State University, ykihl@iastate.edu relates details of current peace process in Korea to David Mitrany's A Working Peace System. His conclusion (p.139): " KEDO, in short, has instituted "A Working Peace System'' which is a welcome and hopeful development that can assist the Korean peninsula finally to overcome the legacy of the Cold War.''
[68]
John N. Kinnas. The Politics of Association in Europe. Campus, Frankfurt and New York, 1979.
This booklet is dedicated to AJR Groom, one of the experts of functionalism, neo and "paleo''.
The associations mentioned in particular (Table 1.1, p.15) are those which exist between ECE, resp. Council of Europe, ECSC, EEC, EFTA, CMEA on the one hand and Cyprus, resp. Finland, West-Germany, East-Germany, Greece, Malta, The West-German "Land'' Saar, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, Yugoslavia on the other hand.
Has a section (p.79) on "Association and the Functional Imperative in Europe''. There he sees great potential in this combination. General evaluation: very thoughtful and inspiring, although writing from a rather outdated perspective. Quotes favourably Buchan 1969, [8]. Mentions in that context Laski - without source - who advocated a functional-federal synthesis as an approach for future European integration.

[69]
Paul Kirchhof. Das Maastricht-Urteil des Bundesverfassungsgerichts. In Ensthaler [34], pages 33-48.
As one of the judges acting at the time when the Maastricht Treaty was challenged before the German constitutional court in 1993, this article conveys some of the reasoning in that quarter. The expectation that judicial review could reign the factual implementation of the European Monetary Union is expressed here. For the factual development of EMU this turned out to be inconsequential.
[70]
Leopold Kohr. Die Überentwickelten Nationen. Salzburg, 1983. (The Overdeveloped Nations, deutsche Übersetzung).

[71]
Christine Landfried, editor. Politik und Politikwissenschaft in einer entgrenzten Welt. Verlag Wissenschaft und Politik, Köln, 2002.
Contains Jachtenfuchs 00

[72]
Torbjörn Larsson and Andreas Maurer. The Committe System, Legitimacy, Citizen's perceptions and Acceptance of the EU-System of Governance, chapter 5. Subproject, pages 61-131. Volume 00/GHA of EIPA [31], 2000. URL: http://eipa-nl.com/public/public_publications/default_working.htm.
Discerns five different types of committees:
"- The "expert'' committees which provide the Commission with external advice during the elaboration of EC proposals;
- The role of institutions with consultative status such as the Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions;
- The "working groups'' and the Committee of Permanent Representatives (COREPER) which prepare the decisions of the Council of Ministers;
- The standing committees of the European Parliament through which the latter exercises its legislative powers;
- The "comitology committees'' which assist the Commission in exercising its implementing functions delegated to it by the Council and the Parliament.7''
Gives on overview over integration theories and their respective views of administrative interaction (pp.79ff.) and expressly discusses neo-functionalism in this context.
[73]
L. Lindberg and S. Scheingold. Europe's Would-Be Polity: Patterns of Change in the European Community. Harvard University Press, Harvard, 1970.

[74]
L. Lindberg and S.A. Scheingold, editors. Regional Integration: Theory and Research. Harvard University Press, Harvard, 1971.

[75]
L. N. Lindberg. The Political Dynamics of Economic Integration. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1963.
quoted by Hix99 p.14

[76]
Valerio Lintner. European Monetary Union - Developments, implications and prospects. In Richardson [128], chapter 16, pages 321-334.
In a section on "The development of EMU: from Werner to Maastricht'' the author lists seven alternative analytical approaches. Nr. 4 is "the `neo-functionalist' explanation, which is based on the concept of spillover (Haas 1958 )'' see [46], GMA.
See also p.330: "the Maastricht model [of monetary integration, GMA] throws up concerns about the democratic accountability of economic policy''
[77]
Walter Lipgens, editor. Documents on the history of European integration, volume vol. 1-4 of European University Institute : Ser. B ;. de Gruyter, Berlin etc., 1(1984) - 4(1991).
Very dilligent collection of documents on European Integration plans and projects, like, e.g. Altiero Spinelli's "Ventotene Manifesto'' on European federalism. Scholarly introduction and comments.

[78]
Walter Lipgens, editor. 45 [fünfundvierzig] Jahre Ringen um die Europäische Verfassung. Bonn, 1986.

[79]
Juliet Lodge. Loyalty and the EEC: the limitations of the functionalist approach. Political Studies, 26,:232-248, June 1978.

[80]
D. Long and P. Wilson, editors. Thinkers of the Twenty Years Crisis: Inter-War Idealism Reassessed. Oxford, 1995.
from: Theories and Models of European Integration,
Andrew MacMullen ; a.l.macmullen@durham.ac.uk

[81]
David Long. La Politique étrangère et de Sécurité Communes. In Michel Fortman, S. Neil MacFarlane, and Stéphane Roussel, editors, Tous pour un ou chacun pour soi. Promesses et limites de la coopération régionale en matière de sécurité, pages 115-133. Québec, 1996.

[82]
David Long and Lucian Ashworth, editors. New Perspectives on International Functionalism. Macmillan, London and Basingstoke, 1998.
Contents:
The Functional Approach, Functionalism and Beyond; David Long and Lucian M. Ashworth
Science, Politics and Conflict in the Functional Approach; J.D. Cooper
Functionalism and Modernity in International Relations; J.H. Eastby
Mitrany and the Enjoyment of Nationalism; L.M. Ashworth
The Functional Approach, Organization Theory and Conflict Resolution; C.N. Murphy
The United Nations and Functional Conflict Management; J.P. Sewell
The Security Discourses of the European Union; D. Long
The Functional Approach to the Management of Trade Conflict; R. Wolfe
Practical Things, Constricted Interests: David Mitrany and the False Security of Ecofunctionalism; R. Boardman

[83]
Mircea Malitza. Mitrany and the Cooperation Process in the Black Sea Area. Millennium III, (Bucharest), forthcoming, 2002. Contribution delivered at the "Mitrany-Workshop'', Black Sea University Foundation, Mangalia, 14 August 2002.
From author's conclusion: "On placing Mitrany's ideas on the grid of the experience of this regional area [Black Sea, GMA] we find out that they show a considerable capacity to organize and elucidate this experience. The wish for welfare producing peace is prevalent.''

[84]
Sonia Mazey. European integration - Unfinished journey or journey without end? In Richardson [128], pages 27-50.
Author characterises European integration as basically functionalistic, but yet as being of undetermined and ambiguous nature, p.28:
"The 'Community method' of functional integration advocated by Jean Monnet was an ingenuous device; crucially it enabled the (federalist inclined) founding fathers of European integration to side-step the politically intractable barrier of national sovereignty. Then, as now, there was no consensus over the precise form that European co-operation should take. The founding Treaties of the European Communities did not resolve this issue; rather they represented an ambiguous compromise between intergov- ernmentalists and European federalists involved in the post-war debate on European co-operation. The former viewed the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) created by the Treaties, as functional agencies charged only with the coordination of national, economic strategies in designated sectors. However, European federalists hoped that these agencies would, over time, provide the basis for a more comprehensive kind of political integration. The institutional arrangement created by the founding Treaties reflected this ambiguity. On the one hand, the European Commission and the European Court of Justice provided for a supranational European executive and legal authority. On the other hand, however, national governments, represented in the Community's Council of Ministers, enjoyed important legislative and executive powers with regard to the adoption and implementation of EC policies. This uncertainty regarding the proper status and ultimate objectives of European integration left open the question of the future development of the European Community.''
[85]
Robert I. McLaren. Mitranian functionalism: possible or impossible. Review of International Studies, 11,:139-152, 1985.

[86]
Hans J. Michelman and Panayotis Soldatos, editors. European Integration: Theories and Approaches. Lanham, 1994.
Has Muttimer 1994.

[87]
A. J. Miller. The Functional Principle in Canada's External Relations. International Journal, 35:309-328, 1980.

[88]
David Mitrany. Rumania, her history and politics. 1915.

[89]
David Mitrany. Greater Rumania: a study in national ideals. Hodder and Stoughton, London, 1917.

[90]
David Mitrany. The problem of international sanctions. Humphrey Milford, London, 1925.

[91]
David Mitrany. The land and the peasant in Rumania: the War and the agrarian reform, 1917-1921. Oxford University Press, London, 1930.

[92]
David Mitrany. The Progress of International Government. William Dodge Lectures, Yale University, 1932. Yale University Press ; Allen and Unwin, New Haven, Conn. ; London, 1933. Partially republished in [103], p.85-104.
Has the "germ'' of Mitrany's functionalism [118,p.64,n.1].

[93]
David Mitrany. The effect of the War in south eastern Europe. Yale University Press, 1936.
Has reference to Popovici [124].

[94]
David Mitrany. A Working Peace System : An Argument for the Functional Development of International Organization [and other essays]. Oxford University Press; Quadrangle Books, Oxford; Chicago, 1943. Chicago publication in 1966; Introduction reprinted in: Mitrany 1975, p.123-132 [103].
This is the locus classicus of Mitrany's functionalism. One interesting aspect of this book is pointed out by [25,p.358, note ii]: "Mitrany ([1943]1966: 46) specifically opposed the creation of a territorially based institution in Europe arguing that `the problems which now divide the national states would almost all crop up again in any territorial realignment; their dimensions would be different, but not their evil nature'. '' This theme is then further elaborated by Mitrany in [101] where he criticizes the European Community along these lines.

[95]
David Mitrany. A working peace system. Royal Institute of International Affairs, London, 1943.
The (or: one) source of the much quoted functionalist paradigm: "form follows function''.

[96]
David Mitrany. The road to security. National Peace Council, London, 1944.

[97]
David Mitrany. American Interpretations; four political essays. Contact Publications, London, 1946.

[98]
David Mitrany. World unity and the nations. London, 1950.

[99]
David Mitrany. Marx against the peasant: a study in social dogmatism. George Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London, 2nd edition, 1952. German translation by Heinz Mattiesen: Marxismus und Bauerntum, Munich: Isar Verlag Dr. Günter Olzog, 1956.
Scholarly argued critique of the socialist movements under the perspective of their dealings with peasantry.

[100]
David Mitrany. Food and freedom. Batchworth Press, London, 1954.

[101]
David Mitrany. The Prospect of Integration: Federal or Functional. Journal of Common Market Studies, 4 :119-149, 1965. Reprinted in [44], p.53-78.
This is a thorough critique of EEC-type integration on the grounds that it is based to much on territorial integration and delimination - on what Mitrany here argues to be the "regional fallacy''.

[102]
David Mitrany. The Making of the Functional Theory - A Memoir. published in [103,pp.3-46]., August 1969.
A fairly extensive autobiographical statement, expanded by [105].
[103]
David Mitrany. The Functional Theory of Politics. London School of Economics & Political Science, St. Martin's Press, New York, 1975.
A collection of autobiographical and scholarly writings of David Mitrany's, some previously published.

[104]
David Mitrany. A political theory of the new society. In Arthur J. R. Groom and Paul Taylor, editors, Functionalism. Theory and Practice in International Relations, pages 25-37. London University Press, London, 1975.

[105]
David Mitrany. [The Making of the Functional Theory] - Notes and References. In The Functional Theory of Politics [103], pages 47-82. Extends [102].
Extends the autobiographical material published in [103]
[106]
Nicholas Móricz. The Fate of the Transylvanian Soil: A Brief Account of the Romanian Land Reform of 1921. 1934.
Criticises Mitrany for his uncritical reliance on Romanian statistics in his account of the Romanian land reform.

[107]
David Mutimer. 1992 and the political integration of Europe: neofunctionalism reconsidered. Journal of European Integration, 13,:75-101, 1989.

[108]
D. Muttimer. Theories of Political Integration. In Michelman and Soldatos [86], pages 13-42.
Should deal with functionalism in view of other contribution by D. Muttimer.
[109]
Cornelia Navari. David Mitrany and International Functionalism. In Long and Wilson [80], pages 214-46.
from: Theories and Models of European Integration,
Andrew MacMullen ; a.l.macmullen@durham.ac.uk
[110]
Christine Neuhold. "Much ado about nothing?'' Comitology as a feature of EU policy implementation and its effects on the democratic arena. 2001. Paper for the ECPR Workshop: Governance and Democratic Legitimacy 6 - 11 April 2001, Grenoble, available at the URL http://www.essex.ac.uk/ecpr/jointsessions/grenoble/papers/ws5/neuhold.pdf on 20 August 2002.

[111]
Arne Niemann. The PHARE programme and the concept of spillover: neofunctionalism in the making. Journal of European Public Policy, 5(3, September):428-446, 1998.
See author's abstract (p.428): "This article argues that neofunctionalism has been wrongly underestimated and widely neglected in recent years. It suggests that neofunctionalism can be developed in a meaningful way to explain the emergence of PHARE as well as the decision-making structures and dynamics shaping the programme. A number of subsidiary neofunctionalist contributions have been largely ignored, and many of the recent partial theories either reconfirm neofunctionalist hypotheses or provide useful insights for their revision and development. This analysis aims to upgrade underestimated neofunctionalist assumptions, such as externalization, engrenage and task expansion, as well as to extend the current understanding of neofunctionalism by incorporating the mediating role of the Presidency and the phenomenon of epistemic communities into the theory. The findings of this study challenge those of Haggard and Moravcsik's analysis of the political economy of financial assistance to Eastern Europe. Apart from refuting the conclusions of their case study, this article challenges Moravcsik's approach more generally. ''

[112]
Joseph S. Nye Jr. Patterns and catalysts in regional integration. International Organization, 19,:870-884, 1965.

[113]
Joseph S. Nye Jr. Comparative regional integration: concept and measurement. International Organization, 22,:855-880, 1968.

[114]
Joseph S. Nye Jr. Comparing common markets: a revised neo-functionalist model. International Organization, 24,:796-835, 1970.

[115]
Joseph S. Nye Jr. Peace in parts: integration and conflict in regional organization. Little Brown,, Boston, 1971;. ( 1987 Lanham: University Press of America).

[116]
Tommaso u.a. Padoa-Schioppa. Efficiency, Stability, and Equity - A Strategy for the Evolution of the Economic System of the EC. Oxford, 1987.

[117]
Robin Pedler and Günther F. Schaefer, editors. Shaping European Law and Policy: The Role of Committees and Comitology in the Political Process. European Institute of Public Administration, Maastricht, 1996.
Of interest in the context of Mitrany's project of expert governance.

[118]
Charles Pentland. International Theory and European Integration. Studies in international politics. Faber and Faber, London, 1973. See in particular ch.3: "Functionalism: The Technological and Economic Imperatives of Political Change'' and ch.4: "Neofunctionalism and the European Community Method of Integration''.
Author refers to Armand and Drancourt68; Taylor [149,p.xi] mentions him;
See [159]: "Borrowing Charles Pentland's metaphor, the functionalist logic sees the state in the context of international cooperation as "the insect in a carnivorous plant'' which while ättracted ever inward by the benefits, it finds that behind it the avenues of retreat are progressively blocked'' (Pentland, 1973, 82). By definition, modern society generates a myriad of technical problems that can best be resolved by experts as opposed to politicians. A successful collaboration in one particular technical field or functional area would lead to further collaboration in other related fields by means of the spillover mechanism. Governments recognize the common benefits to be gained by such cooperative endeavours and allow for their further expansion (Viotti and Kauppi, 1993, 241). This can also allow for cooperative distribution mechanisms to balance out some of the disparities within society, whilst recognizing, however, the impossibility of realizing a `perfect world' (Taylor, 1990, 179)'' .
p.23: Matrix in which he puts funtionalism etc.

[119]
Charles Pentland. Functionalism and Theories of International Political Integration. In Groom and Taylor [44], pages 9-24.
p.9: From a functionalis standpoint, "the integration theorists have taken a fundamentally wrong turn - towards a narrow pre-occupation with the building of massively bureaucratised regional super-states - which has led them away from the central issues of world order.'' Discerns and discusses "four major traditions of thought about international political integration'' (p.11ff.): Federalism, Pluralism, Functionalism, and Neofunctionalism. p.16: " Functionalism emerged early inthis [20th, GMA] century as an interpretation of such new forms of international cooperation as the Univeral Postal Union and the Danube Commission...'' p.23: Author lists [132] as "seminal work'' for later roots of functionalism.
[120]
François Perroux. L' Europe sans rivages. Paris, 1951.
Perroux, Francois L'Europe sans rivages Paris 1951 Wird von Mitrany empfohlen, weil er den Begriff espaces economiques verwende "freed from the servitudes of location'' Funktionalismus

[121]
Mike Peters. The Bilderberg Group and the project of European unification. Lobster, 32(December), 1996.
Author points out that Mitrany was external relations advisor for the Unilever company and that the Unilever directorate was one of the main instigators of the foundation of the Bilderberg group. The article points out that Jean Monnet was a participant of these activities and that the idea of "trans atlantic partnership'' was a pet idea of functionalists after World War II. URL in July 2002: http://www.lobster-magazine.co.uk/issue32.htm

[122]
N. Petersen. National strategies in the integration dilemma: An adaption approach;. Journal of common market Studies,, Vol. 36(No.1 (March),):S. 33-54;, 1998.
An example for a recent functionalistic approach

[123]
Martin Peterson. International Interest Organizations and the Transmutation of Postwar Society - 1 A Conceptual Framework 2 Agriculture and the EEC. Almqvist & Wiksell International, Stockholm - Sweden, 1979. Diss. Hist. Fac. Göteborg, 31 May 1979.

[124]
Aurel C. Popovici. Die Vereinigten Staaten von Groß-Österreich. Politische Studien zur Lösung der nationalen Fragen und staatsrechtlichen Krisen in Österreich-Ungarn. Mit einer Karte vom föderativen Groß-Österreich [The United States of Great-Austria. Political Studies for the Solution of the National Questions and Constitutional Crises in Austria-Hungary. With a Map of Federal Great-Austria]. B.Elischer Nachfolger, Leipzig, 2nd edition, 1906.
In spite of its megalomanic title, this scholarly treatise by the leader of Romanians in Transylvania at the beginning of the 20th century is about the break-up of Austria-Hungary, namely along ethnic lines. We have here one theme of David Mitrany's later work, namely the break-up of states, at least as far as the Hungarian part of Austria-Hungary was concerned. Mitrany himself sees this somewhat differently, see [105,p.62, note 20].
This proposal was unrealistic and politically not feasable. But just because of this it could be a blue-print one may hold functionalism against. In any case, this is a grand canvass of the political scenario faced by Romania and ethnic Romanians at the time of Mitrany's youth. Its scholarly style, enormous scope of considerations and general orientation must have appealed to Mitrany who expressly referred to it as a "learned book'' (ibid.). 8

[125]
Birger P. Priddat. Hegel als Ökonom [Hegel as Economist]. Berlin, 1990.

[126]
Johannes Rau. Gemeinsame Verantwortung für die Zukunft Europas: Mitwirkung von Länder, Regionen und Autonomen Gemeinschaften am Europäischen Haus [Common responsibility for the future of Europe: Cooperation of Federal States, Regions, and Autonomous Communities at the European house]. European Commission. Representation in the Federal Republic of Germany, Zitelmannstraße 22, 53 Bonn, 1991. Europäische Gespräche, Nr.7.
Author is now president of the Federal Republic of Germany. In the discussion of this contribution he voices the opinion that workable federalistic arrangements must also have functional elements.
[127]
P. S. Reinsch. Public International Unions. Boston, 1911.
Pentland [118,p.64, n.1] considers this book to be one of the early manifestations of the functionalist perspective.

[128]
Jeremy Richardson, editor. European Union - Power and polity-making. Routledge Research in European Public Policy. Routledge, London and New York, 2nd. edition, 2001.
Contains [26], [76], [84],

[129]
Volker Rittberger and Michael Zürn. Towards Regulated Anarchy in East-West Relations. In Volker Rittberger, editor, International Regimes in East-West Politics, pages 9-63. Pinter, London, 1990.
Rittberger is more associated with regime theory than with functionalism. Nevertheless, he is interesting in this context because he does see (neo-functionalistic) "spill-overs'' in operation in international politics.
[130]
Ben Rosamond. Theories of European Integration. Basingstoke, 2000.
from Andrew MacMullen, Durham

[131]
Stéphane Roussel. <<L' instant Kantien>>: La contribution Canadienne à la création de la <<communauté nord-atlantique>>, 1947-1949. pages 119-156. Canadian Government Publishing - PWGSC - Catalogue No. E2-179/1998, Ottawa,Canada K1A 0S9, 1998. ISBN 0-660-60748-4; available under http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/department/history/site/pdf/section5.pdf in July 2002.
From the notes about contributors: "Stéphane Roussel is currently pursuing his PhD at the Université de Montréal, where he is also employed as Assistant to the Director, Groupe d' étude et de recherche sur la sécurité internationale. He is the co-author of Environnement stratégique et modèles de défense : Une perspective québécoise (1996), and co-editor of Intérêt national et responsabilités internationales : Six États face au conflit en ex-Yougoslavie, 1991-1995 (1996) and Tous pour un ou chacun pour soi : Promesses et limites de la coopération régionale en matière de sécurité (1995).
[132]
A. Salter. Allied Shipping Control. Clarendon, Oxford, 1921.
Considered by [119] to be "seminal work'' for the development of functionalist ideas.

[133]
Wayne Sandholtz. Choosing union: Monetary politics and Maastricht. International Organization, 47:1-39, 1993.
Kohler and Jachtenfuchs (1995; p.5) see this contribution as one among some others representing the continuing appeal of neo-functionalism in some academic quarters.

[134]
Wayne Sandholtz. Membership matters: limits of the functional approach to European institutions. Journal of Common Market Studies, 34,:1-39, 1996.

[135]
Wayne Sandholtz and Alec Stone Sweet. European Integration and Supranational Governance. Oxford University Press, Oxford University Press)., 1998.
"There is substantial room for supranational governance without an ultimate shift in identification'' (Sandholtz and Stone Sweet, 1998: 5) According to Cram 2001 these authors are particularly interesing in a negative aspect - for their lack of interest in identity building.

[136]
Wayne Sandholtz and John Zysman. 1992: recasting the European bargain. World Politics, 42,:1-30, 1989.
quoted in Niemann 1998

[137]
Carlo Schmid. Erinnerungen. Gesammelte Werke in Einzelausgaben, volume 3. Bern/München/Berlin, 1980.

[138]
Philippe C. Schmitter. Further notes on operationalizing some variables related to regional integration. International Organization, 23(2):327-336, 1969.

[139]
Philippe C. Schmitter. Three neo-functional hypotheses about international integration. International Organization, 23,:161-166, 1969.

[140]
Ernst Friedrich Schumacher. Die Rückkehr zum menschlichen Maß. Alternativen für Wirtschaft und Technik. Reinbek, 1979.
"Fritz'' Schumacher is known as having coined the motto "small is beautiful''. His approach of criticising the large modern nation state is an interesting alternative to the functionalistic approach.

[141]
James Patrick Sewell. Functionalism and World Politics. Princeton, 1966.
Pentland73: p.67 passim. p.70: Sewell discusses Mitrany on his p.68 that structures develop according to felt need and die with satisfaction of that need. P. sees herein "federalism à la carte''. P. refers in this context to Armand and Drancourt pp 196, 198, 204

[142]
Jo Shaw. Postnational constitutionalism in the European Union. Journal of European Public Policy, 6,:579-597, 1999.

[143]
Robert Skidelsky. John Maynard Keynes vol. II - The Economist as a Savior 1920-1937. Macmillan and Penguin Books, London, New York etc., 1992. quoted from the paperback edition, Penguin Books, 1995.
Briefly mentions that Mitrany proposed Keynes for the post of a Minister of Finance in Romania, but that Keynes declined: p.243: "The autumn of 1925 found Keynes, as usual, complaining of overwork ... He refused an invitation to go to Budapest to advise the National Bank of Hungary, and a suggestion by Mitrany that he become Finance Minister of Romania''

[144]
Altiero Spinelli. The Growth of the European Movement Since World War II. In C. Groves Haines, editor, European Integration, page 37ff. Johns Hopkins Press, 1957.
In this contribution Spinelli discusses explicitly Mitrany's functionalistic approach and concedes that it was more successful for early European integration than was the case with the federalism for which Spinelli himself stands. Spinelli was one-time general secretary of the federalist movement and author of the federalistic "Ventotene Manifesto'', written in the 1940s on the prisoners' island Ventotene.
[145]
Altiero Spinelli. The Eurocrats: Conflict and Crisis in the European Community. John Hopkins University Press, New York, 1966.
von Cram01a 72

[146]
Denis Stairs. Realists at Work: Canadian Policy Makers and the Politics of Transition from Hot War to Cold War. pages 91-116. Canadian Government Publishing - PWGSC - Catalogue No. E2-179/1998, Ottawa,Canada K1A 0S9, 1998. ISBN 0-660-60748-4; book was downloadable on 23 July 2002 under the URL http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/department/history/coldwar2-en.asp.
In this publication there appears an interesting variant of a "functionalistic'' principle. It appears in the following quote [p.100] from Hume Wrong who at the the time of the quote - in 1943 - was assistant under-secretary of state.9 As he observed in a memorandum to Robertson in March 1943,
" [W]e have hitherto advanced the principle that representation on international bodies should be determined on a functional basis so as to permit the participation of those countries which have the greatest stake in the particular subject under examination.We have used this principle both to combat the argument that the four largest powers should have a special responsibility in all the fields of planning and organization and to avoid the other extreme which would allow each member of the United Nations to be represented on a basis of nominal equality. I think that we should stick to this functional principle. If we can secure its general acceptance, it would permit the representation of Canada on most of the bodies in which we are deeply interested.''10
[147]
C. Stroby-Jensen. Neofunctionalist Theories and the Development of European Social & Labour Market Policy. Journal of Common Market Studies, 38(1):71-92, 2000.

[148]
Paul Taylor. International Co-operation Today - the European and the Universal Pattern, volume 3 of Internationam Relations Series. Elek Books, London, 1971.
Taylor stresses here that a) `functionalism' did not refer just to the peace keeping after WW II but was also under discussion during and after WW I, and b) `functionalism' was `in the air' and not just David Mitrany's idea. Mitrany should be seen in conjunction with other writers of his time:
" Professor Haas has correctly pointed out that the main architect of Functionalism is David Mitrany.11. He is not correct, however, in asserting that they, the Functionalists, were `writers preparing blue-prints for the brave new world that was to arise out of World War II'.12 They were also concerned about the brave new world that was to arise out of the First World War. Leonard Woolf published his survey of plans for a League of Nations in 191713 and edited The Intelligent Man's Way to Prevent War in 1933. Norman Angell, Robert Cecil and G.D.H. Cole were also publishing in the 1930s and earlier. David Mitrany, perhaps the most widely read, did publish for the post Second World War settlement, particularly the pamphlet, The Road to Security (1944) [see nr.[96], GMA] and the book, A Working Peace System (1943)[see nr. [94], GMA]; but he wrote The Progress of International Government, in 1933 [[92], GMA] and also contributed in the 1930s to writings such as `Territorial Revision and Article 19 of the Covenant'14 [of the League of Nations, GMA]. This is not the place for an exercise in literary criticism designed to show how these writers influenced each other, but anyone who cares to consult the original works may readily discover how strong the links are and how clearly they form a single interrelated body of ideas.''

[149]
Paul Taylor. Introduction [to Mitrany: The Functional Theory of Politics]. [103], pages vii-xxv.
A collection of autobiographical and scholarly writings of David Mitrany's, some previously published.
[150]
Paul Taylor. The Limits of European Integration. Croom Helm, London/Canberra, 1983.

[151]
Paul Taylor. Functionalism: the approach of david mitrany. In Groom and Taylor [45], pages 125-138.
A broad and thorough selection of discussions of the topic with a strong - but not un-critical - slant on functionalism and neo-functionalism.
Contains [54], [151], [152]
[152]
Paul Taylor. Regionalism and functionalism reconsidered: a critical theory. In Groom and Taylor [45], pages 234-254.
A broad and thorough selection of discussions of the topic with a strong - but not un-critical - slant on functionalism and neo-functionalism.
Contains [54], [151], [152]
[153]
Paul Taylor. The European Community and the State: assumptions, theories and propositions. Review of International Studies,, 17:pp. 109-125., 1991.

[154]
Paul Taylor. The European Union in the 1990's. Oxford University Press,, Oxford:, 1996.

[155]
Mario Telò, editor. European Union and New Regionalism - Regional actors and global governance in a post-hegemonic era. Ashgate, Aldershot etc, 2001.

[156]
Jeppe Tranholm-Mikkesen. Neo-Functionalism: obstinate or obsolete? A reappraisal in the light of the new dynamism of the EC. Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 20(1):1-23, 1991.

[157]
M.P.C.M. Van Schendelen, editor. EU Committees as influential policy makers. Erasmus University and Ashgate, Rotterdam, Holland and Aldershot, UK, 1998.
Interesting collection of articles on EU-committees.

[158]
M.P.C.M. Van Schendelen. Prolegomena to EU Committees as Influential Policymakers. In Van Schendelen [157], page 4.
Of interest in connection with Mitrany's conception of expert governance.
[159]
Donatella M. Viola. International Relations and European Integration Theory: The Role of the European Parliament, volume 26 of Jean Monnet Working Papers in Comparative and International Politics. Department of Political Studies - University of Catania Jean Monnet Chair of European Comparative Politics, Catania, 2000.
Available under http://www.fscpo.unict.it/EuroMed/jmwp26.htm on 14 July 2002. Author traces "realism'' to Niccolò Machiavelli and Thomas Hobbes, "rationalism or internationalism'' to Hugo Grotius, and "universalism or revolutionism'' to Immanuel Kant. Functionalism is traditionally subsumed under the second branch because it appeals to "enlightened self-interest''. But since it aims at overcoming the nation state, it may also be related to the last branch.

[160]
Armin von Bogdandy, editor. Die europäische Option. Eine interdisziplinäre Analyse über Herkunft, Stand und Perspektiven der europäischen Integration [The European Option. An interdisciplinary analysis about origin, state and perspectives of the European Integration]. 1993.
Includes some functionalist contributions. See in particular [161].

[161]
Christian Welz and Christian Engel. Traditionsbestände politikwissenschaftlicher Integrationstheorien: Die Europäische Gemeinschaft im Spannungsfeld von Integration und Kooperation. In von Bogdandy [160], pages 129-169.
Is considered to be a solid representation of basic neo-functionalist tenets like "spillover'' (see Giering97 for such a view)
[162]
Volker Wendt. Die Schaffung der Europäischen Wirtschafts- und Währungsunion: Spill-over und intentionale Entscheidung? Eine Analyse für Deutschland und Frankreich [The creation of the European Economic and Monetary Union: spill-over and intentional decision? An analysis for Germany and France]. PhD thesis, Passau University, Passau, April 2002. Available under http://elib.ub.uni-passau.de/opus/volltexte/2002/25/pdf/wendt.pdf on 8 August 2002.
Quoted from the manuscript available under the above given URL.
[163]
Peter Wilson. E. H. Carr: the revolutionist's realist. LSE, London, 2000.

[164]
Dieter Wolf. Integrationstheorien im Vergleich. Funktionalistische und intergouvernementalistische Erklärung für die Europäische Wirtschafts- und Währungsunion im Vertrag von Maastricht [Integration theories in comparison. Functionalistic and intergovernmentalistic explanation for the European Economic and Monetary Union in the Treaty of Maastricht]. 1999.
Referred to by Wendt 2002, p.44 for its use of funcionalism in "policy analysis'' which is based on the distinction of polity, politics and policy.

[165]
L. S. Woolf. International Government. London, 1916.
Pentland [118,p.64, n.1] considered works by Leonard Woolf such as this one as early examples of the "functionalist perspective''. See also entry [148] and its footnote 13.

[166]
Gerda Zellentin. Der Funktionalismus - eine Strategie gesamteuropäischer Intergration? [Functionalism - a strategy for paneuropean integration?]. In Michael Kreile, editor, Die Integration Europas [The integration of Europe], pages 62-77. Westdeutscher Verlag, Opladen, 1992. Special issue nr. 23 of the Journal PVS - Politische Vierteljahresschrift, vol.33.
Author concludes [p.76] that the functionalist approach commends itself for European integration, because it builds on common intererst and thereby undercuts ethnic and nationalistic animostities as well as differences in the respective value systems.

Footnotes:

1 The second edition (1951) of this thorough enquiry was translated into Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Italian (1954), German (1956), Portuguese (1957).

2See Niall Ferguson [36] for an elaboration of this point from a British perspective.

3See Mitrany in [105,p.48]: "Any residue from early experience with Romanian politics, which after schooling I had left behind already in 1908, could only have been repellent.''

4See [143]. The mind boggles when one thinks what would have been the economic situation in Romania if, on Mitrany's suggestion, she had had indeed Keynes, the later master-mind of modern macroeconomics, as one of her economic political mentors.
In his autobiographical memoir, Mitrany does not mention this particular episode with Keynes, together with whom he worked for the Manchester Guardian in 1923 on a special issue about "European Reconstruction''. But Mitrany does relate an earlier (failed) political proposal which was set in Germany: in 1919 he became well acquainted with Hjalmar Schacht, an unknown official at the Reichsbank at that time. Later, Schacht became Hitler's skillful Central Bank president. But he was quite a-political and finally he ended up in a concentration camp himself for some months. Mitrany proposed Schacht for political office to his then, in 1919, governing German Socialist Party friends. They declined his suggestion on party political grounds. Mitrany's conclusion: "that added to my stock of lessons on the defeating ways of the political-ideological approach'' [102,p.11]. Again one might muse about the turn of events had, due to Mitrany's scheming, Hjalmar Schacht been associated with the democratic German Socialists and not with Hitler's dictatorship.

5English translation by Ronald Steel under the title: The American Challenge, New York : Atheneum, 1979.

6Carr quotes Keynes 1919 three times with longer verbatim passages.

7For a concise briefing on this last category see [35].

8I thank Dr. Nicolae Iordan-Constantinescu for this very interesting reference, GMA.

9Hume Wrong signed the Atlantic Alliance Treaty on April 4, 1949 in Washington [see [131,p.121], GMA ].

10URL of this quote in July 2002: http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/department/history/site/pdf/section4.pdf. From author's footnotes: C.f.: John F. Hilliker, ed., Documents on Canadian External Relations (DCER), Volume 9:1942-1943 (Ottawa,1980), this particular quote: Hilliker, DCER,Volume 9, p. 872. Vincent Massey, the high commissioner in London, in commenting on Wrong's memorandum, noted that he was "in entire agreement'' with the functional principle. Ibid., p. 876.

11Taylor refers at this point to [48,p.8]

12Taylor: ibid.

13Taylor: Leonard Woolf, The Framework for a Lasting Peace, Allen and Unwin, 1917.

14Taylor: International Affairs, Nov. 1935