Professor Andrea Sand

Andrea Sand studied English, linguistics and Indo-European linguistics at Albert-Ludwigs-University (Freiburg, Germany) where she obtained an M.A. in 1991. A Fulbright Scholarship at the University of Tennessee at Knoxville, USA, in the academic year of 1986-87 enabled her to do in-depth research in regional and social varieties of English. Back in Freiburg, this research resulted in an interest in English-based pidgins and creoles, as is documented by her M.A. thesis “Tense and Aspect in Tok Pisin”. Between 1992 and 2004 she held various teaching positions in the Department of General Linguistics and the English Department at the University of Freiburg, covering a variety of topics in general linguistics and English linguistics. From 1992-1995 she was a member of the Graduiertenkolleg “Transitions and Conflicts between Orality and Literariness” in Freiburg, working on a project on language in the media, comparing written and spoken text-types. In 1996, she obtained her PhD. Her dissertation Linguistic Variation in Jamaica: A Corpus-Based Study of Radio and Newspaper Usage (Tübingen: Narr) was published in 1999. Since 1997 she has covered the section on Creolistics and the New Englishes in Year’s Work in English Studies (Oxford: OUP) and has published several articles on Caribbean English and corpus-based linguistic research. In 1999 she participated in a teaching-exchange program between Portland State University in Oregon, USA, and the University of Freiburg. Between 2000 and 2003 she was involved in the compilation of the Jamaican subcorpus of the International Corpus of English as part of Project A02 of Sonderforschungsbreich 541: Identitäten und Alteritäten (‘Identity and Alterity’). In 2005, she completed her post-doctoral thesis (Habilitation) on morpho-syntactic parallels in various contact varieties of English, such as Irish English, Jamaican English or Singapore English and was appointed Professor of English Linguistics at the Leibniz University of Hannover with a focus on varieties of English. In Hannover, she collaborated with the research group 'Transformation Studies' and was involved in developing a grant-funded E-learning project with colleagues from various universities in Lower Saxony.


Selected Publications


Sand, Andrea. 1999. Linguistic Variation in Jamaica - A Corpus-Based Study of Radio and Newspaper Usage. Tübingen: Narr.

Sand, Andrea. forthcoming. Angloversals? Shared Morpho-Syntactic Features in Contact Varieties of English (working title). Amsterdam: Benjamins.



Sand, Andrea. 1998. ‘First Findings from ICE-Jamaica: The Verb Phrase’, in A. Renouf, ed. Explorations in Corpus Linguistics (Proceedings of the 18th ICAME Conference, May 1997, Chester) Amsterdam: Rodopi, 201-214.

 Mair, Christian; Sand, Andrea. 1998. ‘Caribbean English: Structure and Status of an Emerging Variety’, in Raimund Borgmeier et al., eds. Anglistentag 1997 Gießen - Proceedings. Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 187-198.

Sand, Andrea. 1999. ‘Machine-Readable Corpora in Research and Teaching: A Survey’, in H.-J. Diller et al., eds. anglistik & englischunterricht 62: English Via Various Media. Heidelberg: Winter, 309-323.

Sand, Andrea; Skandera, Paul. 2000. ‘Linguistic manifestations of hybridity in literary texts from Africa and the Caribbean’, in Therese Steffen, ed. Crossover: Cultural Hybridity in Ethnicity, Gender, Ethics.  Tübingen: Stauffenburg, 135-150.

Sand, Andrea. 2000. ‘From Mimicry to Hybridity - Can the Study of the Celtic Englishes Benefit from Postcolonial Theory?’, in Hildegard L.C. Tristram, ed. The Celtic Englishes II, Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 40-56.

Sand, Andrea. 2000. ‘Insel, Staat, Region - Aspekte von Identität in der Karibik’, in Peter Haslinger, ed. Regionale und nationale Identitäten - Wechselwirkungen und Spannungsfelder im Zeitalter moderner Staatlichkeit. Würzburg: Ergon, 199-212.

Sand, Andrea. 2002. ‘English in the Caribbean’, in David Allerton et al., eds. Studies in English as a World Language. Basel: Schwabe, 79-91.

Sand, Andrea. 2003. ‘The Definite Article in Irish English and Other Contact Varieties of English’, in Hildegard L.C. Tristram, ed. The Celtic Englishes III. Heidelberg: Winter, 413-430.

Sand, Andrea.  2004. ‘Shared Morpho-Syntactic Features of Contact Varieties: Article Use’, in World Englishes 23( 2): 281-298.

Sand, Andrea. 2005.  ‘The Effects of Language Contact on the Morpho-syntax of English’, ed. Lilo Moessner, ed. Anglistentag 2004 Aachen - Proceedings. Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 449-460.

Sand, Andrea. forthcoming. ‘Angloversals? Concord and Interrogatives in Contact Varieties of English’ in Terttu Nevalainen et al., eds. Proceedings of the 27th ICAME Conference, Helsinki 2006. Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Sand, Andrea. forthcoming. ‘Language Attitudes and Linguistic Awareness in Jamaican English’ in Lars Hinrichs and Joseph T. Farquharson, eds., Approaches to the Creole Continuum. Amsterdam: Benjamins.