Journal Articles (peer-reviewed)


Arens, A. K., Jansen, M., Preckel, F., Schmidt, I., & Brunner, M. (2021). The Structure of Academic Self-Concept: A Methodological Review and Empirical Illustration of Central Models. Review of Educational Research, 91(1), 34–72.

Breit, M., Brunner, M., & Preckel, F. (2021). Age and ability differentiation in children: A review and empirical investigation. Developmental Psychology, 57(3), 325–346.

Breit, M., Scherrer, V., & Preckel, F. (2021). Temporal stability of specific ability scores and intelligence profiles in high ability students. Intelligence, 86, 101538.

Keller, L., Preckel, F., Eccles, J. S., & Brunner M. Top-performing math students in 82 countries: An integrative data analysis of gender differences in achievement, achievement profiles, and achievement motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology.

Lavrijsen, J., Preckel, F., Verachtert, P., Vansteenkiste, M., & Verschueren, K. (2021). Are motivational benefits of adequately challenging schoolwork related to students' need for cognition, cognitive ability, or both? Personality and Individual Differences, 171, 110558.

Weyns, T., Preckel, F., & Verschueren, K. (2021). Teachers-in-training perceptions of gifted children’s characteristics and teacher-child interactions: An experimental study. Teaching and Teacher Education, 97, 103215.


Breit, M., Brunner, M., & Preckel, F. (2020). General intelligence and specific cognitive abilities in adolescence: Tests of age differentiation, ability differentiation, and their interaction in two large samples. Developmental Psychology, 56(2), 364–384.

Breit, M., & Preckel, F. (2020). Incremental validity of specific cognitive abilities beyond general intelligence for the explanation of students’ school achievement. Gifted and Talented International, 1–13.

Gnas, J., Müllensiefen, D., & Preckel, F. (2020). Was denken Musikschullehrkräfte über musikalisch hochbegabte Schülerinnen und Schüler? Eine experimentelle Untersuchung. Beiträge Empirischer Musikpädagogik, 11, 1–33.

Matheis, S., Keller, L. K., Kronborg, L., Schmitt, M., & Preckel, F. (2020). Do stereotypes strike twice? Giftedness and gender stereotypes in pre-service teachers’ beliefs about student characteristics in Australia. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 48(2), 213–232.

Peiffer, H., Ellwart, T., & Preckel, F. (2020). Ability self-concept and self-efficacy in higher education: An empirical differentiation based on their factorial structure. PloS One, 15(7), e0234604.

Preckel, F., Fischbach, A., Scherrer, V., Brunner, M., Ugen, S., Lipnevich, A. A., & Roberts, R. D. (2020). Circadian preference as a typology: Latent-class analysis of adolescents' morningness/eveningness, relation with sleep behavior, and with academic outcomes. Learning and Individual Differences, 78, 101725.

Preckel, F., Golle, J., Grabner, R., Jarvin, L., Kozbelt, A., Müllensiefen, D., Olszewski-Kubilius, P., Schneider, W., Subotnik, R., Vock, M., & Worrell, F. C. (2020). Talent Development in Achievement Domains: A Psychological Framework for Within- and Cross-Domain Research. Perspectives on Psychological Science : A Journal of the Association for Psychological Science, 15(3), 691–722.

Scherrer, V., Preckel, F., Schmidt, I., & Elliot, A. J. (2020). Development of achievement goals and their relation to academic interest and achievement in adolescence: A review of the literature and two longitudinal studies. Developmental Psychology, 56(4), 795–814.

Stricker, J., Buecker, S., Schneider, M [Michael], & Preckel, F. (2020). Intellectual Giftedness and Multidimensional Perfectionism: A Meta-Analytic Review. Educational Psychology Review, 32(2), 391–414.


Arens, A. K., Schmidt, I., & Preckel, F. (2019). Longitudinal relations among self-concept, intrinsic value, and attainment value across secondary school years in three academic domains. Journal of Educational Psychology, 111(4), 663–684.

Hank, P., & Baltes-Götz, B. (2019). The stability of self-esteem variability: A real-time assessment. Journal of Research in Personality, 79, 143–150.

Keller, L., Preckel, F., & Brunner, M. (2019). Nonlinear Relations Between Achievement and Academic Self-Concepts in Elementary and Secondary School: An Integrative Data Analysis Across 13 Countries. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advance online publication.

Keller, U., Strobel, A., Martin, R., & Preckel, F. (2019). Domain-Specificity of Need for Cognition Among High School Students. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 35(5), 607–616.

Keller, U., Strobel, A., Wollschläger, R., Greiff, S., Martin, R., Vainikainen, M.‑P., & Preckel, F. (2019). A Need for Cognition Scale for Children and Adolescents. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 35(1), 137–149.

Preckel, F., Schmidt, I., Stumpf, E., Motschenbacher, M., Vogl, K., Scherrer, V., & Schneider, W. (2019). High-Ability Grouping: Benefits for Gifted Students' Achievement Development Without Costs in Academic Self-Concept. Child Development, 90(4), 1185–1201.

Scherrer, V., & Preckel, F. (2019). Development of Motivational Variables and Self-Esteem During the School Career: A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies. Review of Educational Research, 89(2), 211–258.

Stricker, J., Buecker, S., Schneider, M [Michael], & Preckel, F. (2019). Multidimensional Perfectionism and the Big Five Personality Traits: A Meta–Analysis. European Journal of Personality, 33(2), 176–196.

Stricker, J., Schneider, M [Michael], & Preckel, F. (2019). School satisfaction differentially predicts multidimensional perfectionism one year later. Personality and Individual Differences, 143, 30–35.

Wirthwein, L., Bergold, S., Preckel, F., & Steinmayr, R. (2019). Personality and school functioning of intellectually gifted and nongifted adolescents: Self-perceptions and parents' assessments. Learning and Individual Differences, 73, 16–29.

Wolff, F., Helm, F., Preckel, F., & Möller, J. (2019). Dimensionale Vergleiche im Studium? Ein generalisiertes I/E-Modell zur Ausbildung fachbezogener Selbstkonzepte im Studium der Psychologie. Zeitschrift Für Pädagogische Psychologie, 32(4), 207–220.


Arens, A. K., & Preckel, F. (2018). Testing the internal/external frame of reference model with elementary school children: Extension to physical ability and intrinsic value. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 54, 199–211.

Hank, P., & Schneider, A. (2018). Kontrolle ist gut, Vertrauen ist besser. Die Berufliche Rehabilitation. Zeitschrift Zur Beruflichen Und Sozialen Teilhabe, 32, 309–321.

Peiffer, H., Preckel, F., & Ellwart, T. (2018). Selbstwirksamkeitserwartung von Studierenden. Diagnostica, 64(3), 133–144.

Rudolph, J., Greiff, S., Strobel, A., & Preckel, F. (2018). Understanding the link between need for cognition and complex problem solving. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 55, 53–62.

Schmidt, I., Brunner, M., & Preckel, F. (2018). Effects of achievement differences for internal/external frame of reference model investigations: A test of robustness of findings over diverse student samples. The British Journal of Educational Psychology, 88(4), 513–528.

Vogl, K., Schmidt, I., & Preckel, F. (2018). The role of academic ability indicators in big-fish-little-pond effect research: A comparison study. The Journal of Educational Research, 111(4), 429–438.


Boehme, K. L., Goetz, T., & Preckel, F. (2017). Is it good to value math? Investigating mothers’ impact on their children’s test anxiety based on control-value theory. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 51, 11–21.

Freund, P. A., Jaensch, V. K., & Preckel, F. (2017). A Latent State-Trait Analysis of Current Achievement Motivation Across Different Tasks of Cognitive Ability. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 33(5), 318–327.

Geiser, C., Goetz, T., Preckel, F., & Freund, P. A. (2017). States and traits - theories, models, and assessment. Special Issue. European Journal of Psychological Assessment(4), Article 219-233, 33.

Gogol, K., Brunner, M., Martin, R., Preckel, F., & Goetz, T. (2017). Affect and motivation within and between school subjects: Development and validation of an integrative structural model of academic self-concept, interest, and anxiety. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 49, 46–65.

Lipnevich, A. A., Credè, M., Hahn, E., Spinath, F. M., Roberts, R. D., & Preckel, F. (2017). How distinctive are morningness and eveningness from the Big Five factors of personality? A meta-analytic investigation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 112(3), 491–509.

Luong, C., Strobel, A., Wollschläger, R., Greiff, S., Vainikainen, M.‑P., & Preckel, F. (2017). Need for cognition in children and adolescents: Behavioral correlates and relations to academic achievement and potential. Learning and Individual Differences, 53, 103–113.

Matheis, S., Kronborg, L., Schmitt, M., & Preckel, F. (2017). Threat or challenge? Teacher beliefs about gifted students and their relationship to teacher motivation. Gifted and Talented International, 32(2), 134–160.

Preckel, F., Schmidt, I., Stumpf, E., Motschenbacher, M., Vogl, K., & Schneider, W. (2017). A Test of the Reciprocal-Effects Model of Academic Achievement and Academic Self-Concept in Regular Classes and Special Classes for the Gifted. Gifted Child Quarterly, 61(2), 103–116.

Schmidt, I., Brunner, M., Keller, L., Scherrer, V., Wollschläger, R., Baudson, T. G., & Preckel, F. (2017). Profile formation of academic self-concept in elementary school students in grades 1 to 4. PloS One, 12(5), e0177854.

Schneider, M [Michael], & Preckel, F. (2017). Variables associated with achievement in higher education: A systematic review of meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin, 143(6), 565–600.


Baudson, T. G., Fischbach, A., & Preckel, F. (2016). Teacher judgments as measures of children's cognitive ability: A multilevel analysis. Learning and Individual Differences, 52, 148–156.

Baudson, T. G., & Preckel, F. (2016). mini-q: Intelligenzscreening in drei Minuten. Diagnostica, 62(3), 182–197.

Baudson, T. G., & Preckel, F. (2016). Teachers’ Conceptions of Gifted and Average-Ability Students on Achievement-Relevant Dimensions. Gifted Child Quarterly, 60(3), 212–225.

Baumann, N., Chatterjee, M. B., & Hank, P. (2016). Guiding others for their own good: Action orientation is associated with prosocial enactment of the implicit power motive. Motivation and Emotion, 40(1), 56–68.

Becker, N., Schmitz, F., Falk, A., Feldbrügge, J., Recktenwald, D., Wilhelm, O., Preckel, F., & Spinath, F. (2016). Preventing Response Elimination Strategies Improves the Convergent Validity of Figural Matrices. Journal of Intelligence, 4(1), 2.

Eberspach, L., Fenske, G., Groten, S. C., Neufeldt, L. E., Scherrer, V., & Preckel, F. (2016). Why Do Larks Perform Better At School Than Owls? The Mediating Effect Of Conscientiousness. International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 8(5), 4–16.

Gogol, K., Brunner, M., Preckel, F., Goetz, T., & Martin, R. (2016). Developmental Dynamics of General and School-Subject-Specific Components of Academic Self-Concept, Academic Interest, and Academic Anxiety. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 356.

Herde, C. N., Stegt, S., & Preckel, F. (2016). Auswahlverfahren für Masterstudiengänge aus Sicht von Bachelorstudierenden. Zeitschrift Für Arbeits- Und Organisationspsychologie A&O, 60(3), 145–161.

Herrmann, J., Schmidt, I., Kessels, U., & Preckel, F. (2016). Big fish in big ponds: Contrast and assimilation effects on math and verbal self-concepts of students in within-school gifted tracks. The British Journal of Educational Psychology, 86(2), 222–240.

Lipnevich, A. A., Preckel, F., & Krumm, S. (2016). Mathematics attitudes and their unique contribution to achievement: Going over and above cognitive ability and personality. Learning and Individual Differences, 47, 70–79.

Preckel, F., & Krampen, G. (2016). Entwicklung und Schwerpunkte in der psychologischen Hochbegabungsforschung. Psychologische Rundschau, 67(1), 1–14.

Preckel, F., Rach, H., & Scherrer, V. (2016). Self-concept changes in multiple self-concept domains of gifted students participating in a summer residential school. Gifted and Talented International, 31(2), 88–101.

Scherrer, V., Roberts, R., & Preckel, F. (2016). Parents' assessment of circadian preference in elementary school-aged children: Validity and relations to educational outcomes. Chronobiology International, 33(9), 1188–1207.

Schmitz, F., Manske, K., Preckel, F., & Wilhelm, O. (2016). The Multiple Faces of Risk-Taking. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 32(1), 17–38.

Wagner, L., Baumann, N., & Hank, P. (2016). Enjoying influence on others: Congruently high implicit and explicit power motives are related to teachers’ well-being. Motivation and Emotion, 40(1), 69–81.


Becker, N., Preckel, F., Karbach, J., Raffel, N., & Spinath, F. M. (2015). Die Matrizenkonstruktionsaufgabe. Diagnostica, 61(1), 22–33.

Hank, P. (2015). Beyond An Informal Everyday Concept of Self-Esteem. Journal of Individual Differences, 36(4), 237–246.

Pinxten, M., Wouters, S., Preckel, F., Niepel, C., Fraine, B. de [Bieke], & Verschueren, K. (2015). The formation of academic self-concept in elementary education: A unifying model for external and internal comparisons. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 41, 124–132.

Preckel, F., Baudson, T. G., Krolak-Schwerdt, S., & Glock, S. (2015). Gifted and Maladjusted? Implicit Attitudes and Automatic Associations Related to Gifted Children. American Educational Research Journal, 52(6), 1160–1184.

Preckel, F., & Brunner, M. (2015). Academic self-concept, achievement goals, and achievement: Is their relation the same for academic achievers and underachievers? Gifted and Talented International, 30(1-2), 68–84.


Bossert, M., Kaurin, A., Preckel, F., & Frings, C. (2014). Response-compatibility effects in children. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 11(1), 90–101.

Gogol, K., Brunner, M., Goetz, T., Martin, R., Ugen, S., Keller, U., Fischbach, A., & Preckel, F. (2014). “My Questionnaire is Too Long!” The assessments of motivational-affective constructs with three-item and single-item measures. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 39(3), 188–205.

Gogol, K., Brunner, M., Goetz, T., Preckel, F., & Martin, R. (2014). Structural models of achievement motivation. Personality and Individual Differences, 60 Supplement, 70.

Meier, E., Vogl, K., & Preckel, F. (2014). Motivational characteristics of students in gifted classes: The pivotal role of need for cognition. Learning and Individual Differences, 33, 39–46.

Niepel, C., Brunner, M., & Preckel, F. (2014). Achievement goals, academic self-concept, and school grades in mathematics: Longitudinal reciprocal relations in above average ability secondary school students. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 39(4), 301–313.

Niepel, C., Brunner, M., & Preckel, F. (2014). The longitudinal interplay of students’ academic self-concepts and achievements within and across domains: Replicating and extending the reciprocal internal/external frame of reference model. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106(4), 1170–1191.

Preckel, F. (2014). Assessing Need for Cognition in Early Adolescence. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 30(1), 65–72.

Vogl, K., & Preckel, F. (2014). Full-Time Ability Grouping of Gifted Students. Gifted Child Quarterly, 58(1), 51–68.


Baudson, T. G., & Preckel, F. (2013). Development and Validation of the German Test for (Highly) Intelligent Kids – T(H)INK. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 29(3), 171–181.

Baudson, T. G., & Preckel, F. (2013). Teachers' implicit personality theories about the gifted: An experimental approach. School Psychology Quarterly : The Official Journal of the Division of School Psychology, American Psychological Association, 28(1), 37–46.

Brunner, M., Gogol, K. M., Sonnleitner, P., Keller, U., Krauss, S., & Preckel, F. (2013). Gender differences in the mean level, variability, and profile shape of student achievement: Results from 41 countries. Intelligence, 41(5), 378–395.

Fischbach, A., Baudson, T. G., Preckel, F., Martin, R., & Brunner, M. (2013). Do teacher judgments of student intelligence predict life outcomes? Learning and Individual Differences, 27, 109–119.

Fischbach, A., Keller, U., Preckel, F., & Brunner, M. (2013). PISA proficiency scores predict educational outcomes. Learning and Individual Differences, 24, 63–72.

Preckel, F., Lipnevich, A. A., Boehme, K., Brandner, L., Georgi, K., Könen, T., Mursin, K., & Roberts, R. D. (2013). Morningness-eveningness and educational outcomes: The lark has an advantage over the owl at high school. The British Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 114–134.

Preckel, F., Niepel, C., Schneider, M [Marian], & Brunner, M. (2013). Self-concept in adolescence: A longitudinal study on reciprocal effects of self-perceptions in academic and social domains. Journal of Adolescence, 36(6), 1165–1175.

Schalke, D., Brunner, M., Geiser, C., Preckel, F., Keller, U., Spengler, M., & Martin, R. (2013). Stability and change in intelligence from age 12 to age 52: Results from the Luxembourg MAGRIP study. Developmental Psychology, 49(8), 1529–1543.

Stumpf, E., Preckel, F., & Schneider, W. (2013). Auf dem Prüfstand: Gymnasiale Begabtenklassen. Schulmanagement, 5, 27–30.


Rollett, B., & Preckel, F. (2012). TBS-TK Rezension. Psychologische Rundschau, 63(2), 139–141.

Schmidt-Atzert, L., Kersting, M., Preckel, F., Westhoff, K., & Ziegler, M. (2012). Zum Stand der Psychologischen Diagnostik. Psychologische Rundschau, 63(3), 167–174.


Hahn, E., Preckel, F., & Spinath, F. M. (2011). Das Eule-Lerche-Prinzip. Der Zusammenhang von Chronotyp, Persönlichkeit, Intelligenz und akademischer Leistung. Report Psychologie, 10, 410–420.

Preckel, F., Lipnevich, A. A., Schneider, S., & Roberts, R. D. (2011). Chronotype, cognitive abilities, and academic achievement: A meta-analytic investigation. Learning and Individual Differences, 21(5), 483–492.

Preckel, F., Wermer, C., & Spinath, F. M. (2011). The interrelationship between speeded and unspeeded divergent thinking and reasoning, and the role of mental speed. Intelligence, 39(5), 378–388.

Vock, M., Preckel, F., & Holling, H. (2011). Mental abilities and school achievement: A test of a mediation hypothesis. Intelligence, 39(5), 357–369.


Preckel, F., & Brüll, M. (2010). The benefit of being a big fish in a big pond: Contrast and assimilation effects on academic self-concept. Learning and Individual Differences, 20(5), 522–531.

Preckel, F., Götz, T., & Frenzel, A. (2010). Ability grouping of gifted students: Effects on academic self-concept and boredom. The British Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 451–472.


Goetz, T., Preckel, F., Zeidner, M., & Schleyer, E. (2008). Big fish in big ponds: A multilevel analysis of test anxiety and achievement in special gifted classes. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 21(2), 185–198.

Preckel, F., & Brüll, M. (2008). Grouping the Gifted and Talented: Are Gifted Girls Most Likely to Suffer the Consequences? Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 32(1), 54–85.

Preckel, F., & Eckelmann, C. (2008). Beratung bei (vermuteter) Hochbegabung: Was sind die Anlässe und wie hängen sie mit Geschlecht, Ausbildungsstufe und Hochbegabung zusammen? Psychologie in Erziehung Und Unterrich, 55(1), 16–26.

Preckel, F., Goetz, T., Pekrun, R., & Kleine, M. (2008). Gender Differences in Gifted and Average-Ability Students. Gifted Child Quarterly, 52(2), 146–159.

Preckel, F., Zeidner, M., Goetz, T., & Schleyer, E. J. (2008). Female ‘big fish’ swimming against the tide: The ‘big-fish-little-pond effect’ and gender-ratio in special gifted classes. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33(1), 78–96.


Freund, P. A., Holling, H., & Preckel, F. (2007). A Multivariate, Multilevel Analysis of the Relationship Between Cognitive Abilities and Scholastic Achievement. Journal of Individual Differences, 28(4), 188–197.

Goetz, T., Preckel, F., Pekrun, R., & Hall, N. C. (2007). Emotional experiences during test taking: Does cognitive ability make a difference? Learning and Individual Differences, 17(1), 3–16.


Preckel, F., & Holling, H. (2006). Die Rolle von Intelligenz und Begabung für Handlungskompetenz: am Beispiel beruflicher Hochbegabung. Bildung Und Erziehung, 59(2), 167–178.

Preckel, F., Holling, H., & Vock, M. (2006). Academic underachievement: Relationship with cognitive motivation, achievement motivation, and conscientiousness. Psychology in the Schools, 43(3), 401–411.

Preckel, F., Holling, H., & Wiese, M. (2006). Relationship of intelligence and creativity in gifted and non-gifted students: An investigation of threshold theory. Personality and Individual Differences, 40(1), 159–170.


Holling, H., & Preckel, F. (2005). Self-estimates of intelligence––methodological approaches and gender differences. Personality and Individual Differences, 38(3), 503–517.

Preckel, F., & Freund, P. A. (2005). Online- versus paper-pencil-version of a high potential intelligence test. Psychology Science, 47(2), 230–245.


Preckel, F., & Thiemann, H. (2003). Online- versus paper-pencil-version of a high potential intelligence test. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 62(2), 131–138.


Holling, H., Vock, M., & Preckel, F. (2001). Fostering giftedness at school – a stocktaking in the states of the Federal Republic of Germany. Australasian Journal of Gifted Education, 10, 48–63.


Journal Articles (non peer-reviewed)


Hannig, N., Koop, C., & Preckel, F. (2016). Beratungsanlässe und -themen in der Hochbegabtenberatung: Wie hängen sie miteinander und mit Geschlecht, Alter und Begabung der Kinder und Jugendlichen zusammen? News & Science: Begabtenförderung Und Begabungsforschung, 41(1), 45–50.

Wollschläger, R., & Preckel, F. (2016). Sprachfreie Intelligenztests für Kinder und Jugendliche Darstellung und vergleichende Betrachtung von CFT 1–R, CFT 20–R, SPM, CPM, WMT-2, BOMAT – Standard. Sprache · Stimme · Gehör, 40(01), 25–28.


Preckel, F., Schneider, W., & Stumpf, E. (2015). Begabtenklassen am Gymnasium: Ein Überblick über Befunde aus der PULSS-Studie. News & Science: Begabtenförderung Und Begabungsforschung, 40(2), 36–39.


Arnold, D., Hank, P., Großgasteiger, I., & Preckel, F. (2011). Das Elterntraining KLIKK®. Hochbegabte Kinder konstruktiv unterstützen. Weiterbildung, (April/Mai)(2), 34–36.


Preckel, F. (2009). Integrierte oder separierte Förderung: Was ist die richtige Vorgehensweise zur Förderung Begabter in der Schule? SchulVerwaltung Spezial, 1, 46–47.


Holling, H., & Preckel, F. (2005). Der BIS-HB: Diagnostik von Hochbegabung und allgemeinem sowie bereichsspezifischem schulischem Underachievement. Journal Für Begabtenförderung, 1(31-40).